Additional resources and interventions

This section has information and links for additional early intervention programmes that are closely linked to emotional wellbeing and mental health. Each of these interventions has been evaluated and been rated (1-5) by the Early Intervention Foundation as follows:

  • Evidence rating: Higher ratings are where the research evidence is strongest. A low rating does not necessarily indicate that the intervention is not effective, only that the research may not have been fully carried out to date.
  • Cost rating: Higher ratings are more expensive.

The setting that the intervention is aimed at (e.g primary or secondary), whether it is group or individual based, and a targeted intervention or designed to be universal for all children, is also described.

Advanced Life Skills Training

Advanced LifeSkills Training (LST) is a school-based substance misuse prevention programme designed to help young people avoid tobacco, alcohol and drug abuse.

  • Evidence rating:3+
  • Cost rating:1
  • Child outcomes: Preventing substance abuse, Preventing risky sexual behaviour & teen pregnancy
  • UK provision:Yes
  • Age group: Preadolescents, Adolescents
  • Delivery model:Group
  • Setting: Primary school, Secondary school, Community centre
  • Classification: Universal

All Stars (Core and Core with Plus)

All Stars is a universal programme for children between the ages of 8 and 14 years. The primary goal of the programme is to prevent or delay risky behaviours, specifically substance misuse and anti-social behaviour.

  • Evidence rating:2
  • Cost rating:1
  • Child outcomes: Enhancing school achievement & employment, Preventing substance abuse
  • UK provision: Yes
  • Age group: Primary school, Preadolescents,Adolescents
  • Delivery model: Group
  • Setting: Primary school, Secondary school
  • Classification: Universal

Friends for Life

FRIENDS for Life is part of a suite of FRIENDS programmes (including Fun FRIENDS and FRIENDS for Youth), which aim to improve resilience (or coping) skills in children and reduce anxiety and improve mental health and wellbeing.

  • Evidence rating:3
  • Cost rating:1
  • Child outcomes: Supporting children’s mental health and wellbeing
  • UK provision:Yes
  • Age group: Primary school, Preadolescents
  • Delivery model:Group
  • Setting: Primary school, Secondary school, Out-patient health setting
  • Classification: Universal

The Mental Health Foundation has adapted this programme for use with children with learning disabilities. More information can be found at:

https://www.mentalhealth.org.uk/learning-disabilities/our-work/employment-education/friends-for-life

The Good Behaviour Game

The Good Behaviour Game (GBG) is a universal preventive programme delivered by a teacher to a class of primary school students, normally between 15 and 30 children.

  • Evidence rating:3+
  • Cost rating:1
  • Child outcomes: Supporting children’s mental health and wellbeing; Preventing crime, violence and antisocial behaviour;
    Preventing substance abuse
  • UK provision:Yes
  • Age group: Primary school
  • Delivery model:Group
  • Setting: Primary school
  • Classification: Universal

Level 3 Triple P Discussion Groups

Level 3 Triple P Discussion Groups is for parents with specific concerns about the behaviour of a child between the ages of 0 and 12.

  • Evidence rating:3+
  • Cost rating:1
  • Child outcomes: Preventing crime, violence and antisocial behaviour
  • UK provision:Yes
  • Age group: Toddlers, Preschool, Primary school,
  • Delivery model:Group
  • Setting: Children’s centre or early-years setting, Primary school, Community centre, Out-patient health setting
  • Classification: Universal

Lion’s Quest Skills for Adolescence

Lions Quest Skills for Adolescence (SFA) teaches cognitive-behavioural skills for building self-esteem and personal responsibility, communicating effectively, making better decisions, resisting social influences, and increasing knowledge with regards to drug use and consequences to children in the school setting.

  • Evidence rating:3
  • Cost rating:NA
  • Child outcomes: Preventing substance abuse
  • UK provision:Yes
  • Age group: Preadolescents
  • Delivery model:Group
  • Setting: Primary school, Secondary school, Community centre
  • Classification: Universal

Parents Plus Adolescent Programme

Parents Plus Adolescent Programme (PPAP) is for parents who have concerns about the behaviour or emotions of a child between the ages of 11 and 16. However, it can also be delivered as a universal/preventative intervention or as a more targeted intervention with parents of adolescents identified with emotional/behaviour problems.

  • Evidence rating:2+
  • Cost rating:2
  • Child outcomes: Preventing crime, violence and antisocial behaviour
  • UK provision:Yes
  • Age group: Preadolescents, Adolescents
  • Delivery model:Group
  • Setting: Home, Children’s centre or early-years setting, Primary school, Secondary school, Community centre, In-patient health setting, Out-patient health setting
  • Classification: Targeted selective

Penn Resilience Programme

The UK implementation of the Penn Resilience Programme is based on the Penn Resilience Programme (PRP), which was originally developed by a team of psychologists at the University of Pennsylvania.

  • Evidence rating:2
  • Cost rating:1
  • Child outcomes: Supporting children’s mental health and wellbeing
    UK provision:Yes
  • Age group: Primary school
  • Delivery model:Group
  • Setting: Primary school
  • Classification: Universal

Positive Action

Positive Action is a universal, school-based social and emotional learning programme delivered to children between the ages of 4 and 15.

  • Evidence rating:3+
  • Cost rating:1
  • Child outcomes: Preventing crime, violence and antisocial behaviour; Preventing substance abuse; Preventing risky sexual behaviour & teen pregnancy
  • UK provision:Yes
  • Age group: Primary school
  • Delivery model:Group
  • Setting: Primary school
  • Classification: Universal

Primary Care Stepping Stones Triple P

Stepping Stones Triple P has been developed for parents or caregivers of children aged 0-12 with a developmental disability, such as Down’s syndrome or Autistic Spectrum Disorder, as well as moderate or severe behavioural problems.

  • Evidence rating:2
  • Cost rating:2
  • Child outcomes: Preventing crime, violence and antisocial behaviour
  • UK provision:Yes
  • Age group: Preschool, Primary school
  • Delivery model:Individual
  • Setting: Out-patient health setting
  • Classification: Targeted indicated

Pyramid Club Transition

Pyramid Club is a targeted programme for children who are identified as being quiet, shy and behaviourally more likely to internalise. Pyramid Club Transition is provided to children transitioning to secondary school, with activity content and material tailored to this group.

  • Evidence rating:2+
  • Cost rating:1
  • Child outcomes: Supporting children’s mental health and wellbeing; Enhancing school achievement & employment; Preventing crime, violence and antisocial behaviour
  • UK provision:Yes
  • Age group: Primary school; Preadolescents
  • Delivery model:Group
  • Setting:Primary school
  • Classification: Targeted indicated

Roots of Empathy

Roots of Empathy is a universal classroom-based programme delivered to children from reception to year nine.

  • Evidence rating:2+
  • Cost rating:1
  • Child outcomes: Preventing crime, violence and antisocial behaviour
  • UK provision:Yes
  • Age group: Primary school, Preadolescents
  • Delivery model:Group
  • Setting: Primary school
  • Classification: Universal

Triple P Online

Triple P Online is a web-based parenting intervention. The programme can be used as an early intervention strategy or as a more intensive programme for parents with children up to 12 years with significant social, emotional or behavioural problems.

  • Evidence rating:3+
  • Cost rating:1
  • Child outcomes: Supporting children’s mental health and wellbeing; Preventing crime, violence and antisocial behaviour
  • UK provision:Yes
  • Age group: Toddlers, Preschool, Primary school
  • Delivery model:Online or app
  • Setting: Home
  • Classification: Targeted indicated

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